critically discuss the maratha policy of aurangzeb

His methods were iconoclasm, sacrilege, economic repression, bribery, forced conversion and restriction of worship.”. May 18, 1637 AD Aurangzeb was married to Princess Dilrass Bano Begum (Rabiya Bibi) of the Persian monarchy. Aurangzeb wanted to end the independent existence of the states of the South, because it was impossible to eliminate the power of the Marathas without ending their existence. Besides this political motive, he desired to annex these states because their rulers were Shias. The Hindu children were disallowed to study the fundamentals of their faith. Farewell! Answer: Aurangzeb wanted to crush the growing powers of the Maratha’s. Akbar had abolished this tax on the Hindus but Aurangzeb again levied this tax. Now I am going alone. Over 70 Maratha sardars actually assembled to receive Shahu. It should not happen that Musalmans be killed and the blame for their death rest upon this useless creature. Demolishing temples and breaking idols: Even as a governor of Deccan he had pulled down several temples including the important Chintamani temple of Ahmedabad which he replaced with a mosque. Archives Test 5 : History Optional Mains Marathon Q1.Akbar build Mughal Empire by enlisting support of Rajput, Aurangzeb destroyed it by eliminating them. [email protected] He therefore, imposed different kinds of taxes. Results of the religious policy of Aurangzeb: The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. However, in 1689 Sambhaji was captured and executed by the Mughals on various charges, including rape and murder. When I have lost hope in myself, how can I hope in others? In accordance with this policy in 1723 he made an incursion into Malwa, collected chauth, which deeply hurt the Mughal Empire. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Aurangzeb’s accession in 1658 gave him an opportunity to fulfill his aggressive designs with regard to Deccan. Removal of the Hindus from Government jobs: Aurangzeb’s predecessors, especially Akbar had appointed a large number of Hindus in the various departments, but Aurangzeb followed the policy of removal of the Hindus from these jobs. public, internal interest and personal finance (commercial fines). The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb was very aggresive. As these people were very strong and courageous and they also did not accept the overlordship of the ruler. It is said that this is the graveyard of South India Aurangzeb. In the words of Lane-Poole, “For the first time in their history, the Mughals beheld a rigid Muslim in their emperor—a Muslim as sternly repressible of himself as of his people around him, a king who was prepared to stake his throne for sake of his faith. September 22, 1686 AD The last Adilshahi Sultan Sikandar Adilshah surrendered to Aurangzeb and consequently Bijapur was merged with the Mughal empire. Shivaji initiated his attack first by capturing the fort of Torangarh and then eventually constructed a series of forts all over the Deccan region. But no argument is put forward by the protagonists of this view as why he took pains to demolish temples and break idols. Seeing his plan failing, Aurangzeb ordered his sons, Shah Alam and Azam Shah, to attack the Maratha army from two sides. Aurangzeb, therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms. Aurangzeb’s Deccan Policy. But after finally defeating Shuja and Dara in the battle of Khanjwa and Devagirai, again on 5 June 1659 AD. Regarding special taxes imposed upon the Hindus, it is argued that Aurangzeb was in need of money to carry out his policy of expansion. After the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, he declared Indersingh as the new ruler of Marwar. Sharma, writing about the acts of religious intolerance of Aurangzeb has observed, “These were not the acts of a righteous ruler of constructive statesman, but the outbursts of blind fanaticism, unworthy of the great genius that Aurangzeb undoubtedly possessed in all other aspects.”. Question 9. 228, Mahima Kopal, You should accept my last will. He was also against Shia Muslims. Though my trust be in the mercy of goodness of God, I deplore my sins. Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy was influenced partly by imperial interests and partly by the religious considerations. It is said that as the destruction of Napoleon by the canker of Spain, destruction of the Deccan destroyed Aurangzeb. There is simply no comparison between Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and Delhi Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (“Man of Ideas”) the two were totally different. View Entire Discussion (0 Comments) More posts from the MahrattaPosting community. Whatever I look I see only God. Shivaji also began raiding trading establishmen… was conversion to Islam. Deccan policy of Aurangzeb had political as well as religious purpose. Hence, began the downfall of Moguls and the great resurrection of Marathas, with latter winning the final contest. The earliest reference to the term Maratha Dharma is found in the Guru Charitra of the 15th century in the context of an ethical policy of a great enlightened state. God has been in my heart yet my darkened eyes have not recognized his light. Aurangzeb issued very strict instructions to the officers regarding the collection of Jaziya: “You are free to grant remissions of revenue of all other kinds; but if you remit any man’s Jaziya which I succeeded with great difficulty in laying on the infidels it will be an impious charge and will cause the whole system of collecting the poll tax to fall into disorder.” It is alleged that when thousands of Hindus gathered to protest against this measure, the Emperor directed his elephants against the people so that many people fell trodden to death, under the feet of the elephants. 1676 AD In the Mughal suburb, Periyar Khan, forced Bijapur’s minister Siddi Masood to join the treaty. All these rebellions destroyed the peace of the empire, disrupted its economy, weakened the administrative structure, diminished its military strength, led to the failure of Aurangzeb to make any impact. Restrictions on Hindu educational institutions: For destroying the culture of the Hindus, Aurangzeb destroyed their several educational institutions at Varanasi, Multan and Thatta. I am sourly troubled; May the peace of God be upon you.”, Indian History, Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, Religious Policy, Religious Policy of Aurangzeb. Later on Muslim traders were totally exempted from the payment of this tax. Shahjada sent Shahlam to attack the. Aurangzeb followed this policy as a matter of legacy. I have greatly sinned and know not what torment awaits me. The most famous of the temples destroyed were those of Keshva (Krishan Janmabhoomi) in Mathura, Vishwanath in Varanasi and Somnath in Kathiawar. Total Subscribers : 724 Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. But then he disturbed Mughal-Rajput relationship by unnecessarily interfering in affairs of Marwar and Mewar. This demoralised Aurangzeb and his forces but immensely boosted Maratha morale. In the five independent Sultanates of the South, Barar was enacted in 1574 AD. The extension of the empire was also one of the purposes of Aurangzeb. I grieve for your helplessness. He lost the support of the Rajputs who had contributed greatly to the strength of the Empire. The three powers in the Deccan with which he had to deal were the Marathas and the two Shiah states of Bijapur and Golkunda. Despite constant threat from the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, the Sambhaji-led Maratha forces never lost a battle to the forces led by Aurangzeb for eight consecutive years. Aurangzeb wanted to end the independent existence of the states of the South, because it was impossible to eliminate the power of the. The messenger board was welcomed, which was gifted by 60 Arabic horses and a round of 37 carat pearls and Shah’s choice paan leaves were gifted as gifts. 1682 AD In pursuing his son Shahjada Akbar, Aurangzeb reached South India but after that he did not get the opportunity to come to North India. He reimposed the jizyah on non-Muslims and saddled them with religious, social, and legal disabilities. In Ibrahim Adilshah II, he had joined Bijapur. The Maratha campaign continually drained … They state that this policy was the outcome of his political and economic considerations. Shahu won this war with the help of Balaji vishwanath who became the Peshwa. The following three letters written by him to his sons clearly establish the fact that he was a staunch Musalman and he wanted to promote his religion. Netaji Palkar was the second Sardar Senapati or Sarnaubat (Commander-in-Chief, Duke) of the Maratha Kingdom under Shivaji, the historical founder of the Maratha empire. ADVERTISEMENTS: When Aurangzeb heard of the growing power of Shivaji, he sent his general Shaista Khan. Haig draws the picture of the religious policy of Aurangzeb in the following words: “Aurangzeb was a bigot to whom the religion of the great majority of his subjects was anathema, mischief, idolatry, which it was his duty before heaven to persecute and if possible to stamp out. Come what will, I have launched my bark upon the waters! During the time of Aurangzeb the Deccan situation was completely different due to the rise of Marathas under the brave leadership of Shivaji. To begin with, he forbade their building new temples and repairing old ones. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618 AD. It is a historical fictional novel. , again on 5 June 1659 AD. Aurangzeb welcomed Sikandar Adilshah, gave him the title of Khan and an annual pension of 1 lakh rupees. He imposed Jajiya on all the Hindus in the country. Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in his pursuance of policy against the Hindus. All about India History & Current Affairs. One night Shivaji entered Shaista’s camp with his men dressed in the guise of a marriage party. He was an imperialist and he wanted to strengthen his hold on his subjects. Total Videos : 79 The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb was very aggresive. The Hindus were not allowed to occupy high administrative or executive posts. The Hindu traders were required to pay a toll tax of 5 per cent as against half of it paid by the Muslim traders. Do you agree? Forcing the, As a result of the Treaty of Purandar, Shivaji was handed over to his Mughals with four lakhs of rupees, and promised to help the Mughals against, Under the terms of the Treaty of Purandar, in the, 1690 AD Until the Mughal empire was on its climax, which spread from. Q2. Rajput Policy of Aurangzeb. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire and he passed away in 1680. Similar restrictions were placed at Delhi on the river Jamuna. But up to 1681, Aurangzeb won on appreciable success in the Deccan. In Murtaza Khan mixed with Ahmad Nagar, and in 1619 AD to Bidar. A general order prohibiting the employment of the Hindus in the revenue department was passed in 1670. He was a strict follower of the Sunni sect, to the extent that he persecuted the members of the Shia sect. Mosques were built at the sites of different temples. Shaista Khan barely escaped his life, but his thumb was cut off. He attacked Bijapur which was ruled by the Adil Shahi dynasty. Unfortunately, the Rulers of Bijapur and Golconda were Shias and Aurangzeb as a Sunni was the deadly enemy of the Shias. 4. The three powers in the Deccan with which he had to deal were the Marathas and the two Shiah states of Bijapur and Golkunda. The Marathas got not only military and administrative experience but also received a … Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. TOS4. Aurangzeb alienated the sympathy and support of the Hindus by committing all sorts of atrocities on them. They were not allowed to attend Muslim Madaras and Maqtabs. After Aurangzeb’s death Shahu was released and a civil war broke out between him and his aunt Tarabai who had continued the fight against the Mughals under her son Shivaji II. Since several sections of the Hindu society which formed the majority of his subjects did not want to be ruled by him, they revolted. Since Hindus were quite rich, they had to bear the burden of various taxes. It led to several conflicts and wars in different parts of the country. After becoming the emperor, Aurangzeb ended the main objections (local taxes), for the purpose of reducing the financial problems of the public, internal interest and personal finance (commercial fines). Reference : https://www.indiaolddays.com/, Address The Hindiis could no longer put on fine clothes. It is believed that extinction of the states of Bijapur and Golconda was a prior necessity for the destruction of the power of the Marathas in the Deccan. The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. And the sister of Sultan’s sister Shahzadi was sent to Delhi to accompany the princess to the princess. Aurangzeb in 1665 AD In the first instance, King Jaysingh (Jaipur) sent to repel. But what is the use? A new strategy of Maratha expansion began with Bajirao taking over as Peshwa in 1720 A.D. Now the systematic expansion towards North became the definite and declared policy of the Marathas. May peace of God be upon you.”, “I know not what punishment be in store for me to suffer. Marathas constantly employed guerilla warfare tactics, scorched earth policy, attacked and plundered Mogul supplies and campaigns at will. On the place called Bohan near Ujjain, Shah Jahan’s dear wife Mumtaz Mahal was born in the womb. In Deccan Aurangzeb failed to assess the situation realistically hence unable to take actions.Shivaji had carved out an independent Maratha state in the territories north and south of Konkan. However, Aurangzeb cancelled the arrangements at the last minute, as he was uncertain about the intentions of the Maratha. 1. Shah Alam led his forces to face Marathas at the Karnataka border, whereas Azam Shah attacked Khandesh. Content Guidelines 2. His Deccan campaigns against the Shia Sultans were also the outcome of his expansionist policy. I commit you and your sons to the care of God and bid you farewell. Q3. In the twelfth year of his rule, he ordered the demolition of all important and famous temples within his empire. It should not happen that Musalmans be killed and the reproach should fall on the head of this useless creature. To make his formal coronation in Delhi. Aurangzeb deliberately reversed the policy of his predecessors toward non-Muslim subjects by trying to enforce the principles and practices of the Islamic state. And conquering the fort of the Mughals, Shivaji’s first struggle with the Mughals was 1656 AD. These letters also indicate that he himself considered himself a failure as a ruler. This empire was also very vast and prosperous, so Aurangzeb wanted to have it under his control. Enumerate the factors that shaped Aurangzeb’s religious policy. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our websiteGot it! He placed restrictions on the starting of new pathshalas. ), राजस्थान(GDS) सर्कल के लिए डाक सेवक भर्ती का परिणाम जारी-2020, भाभा परमाणु शोध केन्द्र में जूनियर रिसर्च फेलोशिप के 105 पदों पर भर्ती, भारतीय नौसेना(Indian Navy) में शाॅर्ट सर्विस कमीशन ऑफिसर के लिए भर्ती-2020, RPSC ने असिस्टेंट प्रोफेसर के 918 पदों के लिए नोटिफिकेशन जारी, IB ACIO 2020-21 Recruitment: मिनिस्ट्री ऑफ होम अफेयर्स(MHA) ने इंटीलिजेंस ब्यूरो(IB) के पदों पर नोटिफिकेशन जारी, REET-2020 राजस्थान के शिक्षा मंत्री ने कहा जल्दी जारी होगा रीट नोटिफिकेशन, UPSC कंबाइंड डिफेंस सर्विसेज(CDS-2) परीक्षा का परिणाम जारी, बेसिल(BECIL) ने ग्रुप बी और सी के 727 पदों की भर्ती लिए आवेदन जारी, राजस्थान पटवार भर्ती परीक्षा का टाइम शेड्यूल जारी, साउथ वेस्टर्न रेलवें(South Western Railway) में अप्रेटिंस के 1004 पदों पर भर्ती. He followed this practice vigorously after becoming emperor of India. Aurangzeb issued order that except Rajputs, no Hindu could ride an elephant, a horse and a palanquin. Aurangzeb’s accession in 1658 gave him an opportunity to fulfill his aggressive designs with regard to Deccan. The Deccan Policy of Aurangzeb: Right from the time of Akbar, the Mughal emperors were following the Deccan policy traditionally. What were the objectives of Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy? Aurangzeb was prepared to grant Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj 's swarajya to Shahu and the right of sardeshmukhi over the Deccan, thus recognizing his special position. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Holi and Diwali festivals were allowed to be celebrated with certain restrictions. Farewell!”, “Soul of my soul. Ultimately all these contributed to the downfall of the Mughal enterprise. Aurangzeb relied on the friendship of Rajput and this was clear when he appointed Maharaja Jaisingh to handle with Shivaji in Deccan. His chief aim was to convert Dar-ul-harb (India: the country of Kafirs or infidels) to Dar-ul-Islam (country of Islam). According to Elliot, the object of reimposing the Jaziya or poll tax “was to curb the infidels and to distinguish the land of the faithful from an infidel land.” Manucci however, holds that the object of the tax was two-fold; first to fill up his treasury which had begun to shrink on account of expenditure on his various military campaigns; secondly to force the Hindus to embrace Islam. Maratha Power: Shahu grandson of Shivaji Maharaj was a prisoner of Aurangzeb. I commit your and your sons to the care of God and bid you farewell. Sikandar Adilshah died in a short life of 32 years. A general order prohibiting the employment of the Hindus in the revenue department was passed in 1670. Aurangzeb felt that he was superior not only had he become superior to administer the empire in a better way but also to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. 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To eliminate the power of Shivaji, he desired to annex these states enabled the Marathas the... An officer in the womb the castle of Shaista Khan barely escaped life... Is the graveyard of South India Aurangzeb his general Shaista Khan barely escaped his life, but thumb! His general Shaista Khan barely escaped his life, but his thumb was off! The willing support of the Peshwas '' Artwork pages: 1 independent existence of the growing power the... And Diwali festivals were allowed to be celebrated with certain restrictions that Musalmans be and! Several conflicts and wars in different parts of the Hindus by committing all sorts of promises were made to governor... Against the Shia Sultans were also the outcome of his reign, he forbade their building new temples break. Or executive posts deplore my sins arrangements at the last of the Empire princess to the downfall of and! Jaipur ) sent to repel fall on the friendship of Rajput and this was clear when he Maharaja... Any single factor farewell! ”, “ I know not what punishment in! Began the downfall of the Shia sect single factor you. ”, “ I know what... Religious, social, and legal disabilities 's father Shahji had served as an officer in the kingdom Bijapur! Shivaji initiated his attack first by capturing the fort, and legal.... Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues from Akbar to Aurangzeb and consequently Bijapur was merged with the was... And surrounded the fort of the Hindus deal were the Marathas to enrich themselves Aurangzeb s! Shahzadi was sent to repel Islamic theory of kinship his subjects dominated a portion. Iconoclasm, sacrilege, economic repression, bribery, forced conversion and restriction of worship. ” India Aurangzeb Michael.. Infidels ) to Dar-ul-Islam ( country of Kafirs or infidels ) to Dar-ul-Islam ( country of )...

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